Chapter 1

General Organization of Hotel

Catering Establishments

General Employment Requirements

Food & Beverage Service

Food Hygiene and Safety/ HACCP/


General Organization of Hotels and Catering Establishments

[Text Wrapping Break]In general, food and beverage outlets can be classified into two main sectors in terms of their business nature, i.e. commercial or subsidized restaurant.

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The Commercial Sector

Commercial food and beverage outlets may be defined as those operations in which profit is a primary concern.  Such outlets exist not only in private ownership but also in the publicly owned sector of the economy.

Commercial catering for a general market


The provision of food and beverage facilities in hotels ranges from a self-service style often used for breakfast service to full silver service used at the luxury end of the market.  The types of food and beverage outlets found in hotels include silver service restaurants, licensed bars, coffee shops and snack bars, carvery and buffet restaurants, gueridon service and banqueting facilities.

Restaurants and Snack Bars

The primary function of commercial restaurants is the provision of food and beverages.  As these restaurants do not have any in-house trade, they depend on their location and volume of passing trade and reputation they develop from word-of-mouth advertising.


Pubs consist of a varied group of establishments, which mainly offer the general public alcoholic liquor for sale for consumption on and off the premises.  The supply of food, at one time ancillary to liquor, is an increasingly dominant element in the ‘product mix’ for the consumer.

Fast Food and Take Away

This sector of industry is concerned with the preparation and service of food and beverages quickly for immediate sale to the customer for consumption either on or off the premises.

Commercial Catering for a Restricted Market

Travel Catering

Travel catering (i.e. road, rail, air and sea) has a number of characteristics not commonly associated with other food and beverage outlets.  It frequently involves the feeding of a large number of customers arriving together at a catering facility, and who need to be catered for in a specific time, for example, on board a plane.


Clubs, as a sector of the hotel and catering industry, are establishments offering food and drink, occasionally with accommodation, to members and their bona fide guests.

Institutional and Employee Catering – Contract Caterers

Institutional and employee catering will be dealt with in detail under the heading of subsidized and welfare catering, as indeed most of these types of operations are run on some form of a subsidized basis.

Function and Event Catering

Function and event catering may be described as the service of food and beverages at a specific time and place, for a given number of people, to an agreed menu and price.

The Subsidized or Welfare Sector

Subsidized or welfare food and beverage establishments may be defined as those operations in which making a profit from the catering facility is not the outlet’s primary concern.

Institutional Catering

Institutional catering establishments include schools, universities, colleges, hospitals, the Services, and prisons.  In some of these establishments no charge is made to certain groups of customers to pay for the provision of food and beverage services as they are completely or partially subsidized by various government funds.


The school meals catering service was formerly structured on a dietary basis with a daily or weekly per capita allowance to ensure that the children obtained adequate nutritional levels from their meals. There has been a shift away from this conventional arrangement to the provision of a snack-type lunch as an alternative to or replacement for the main meal.

Universities and Colleges

All institutions of further and higher education provide some form of catering facilities for the academic, administrative, technical and secretarial staff as well as for full and part time students and visitors.  The catering service in this sector of the industry suffers from an under-utilization of its facilities during the three vacation periods and in many instances as the weekends.


Hospital catering facilities have improved considerably over the past ten to twenty years with the result that new hospitals in particular are benefiting from well planned and managed catering services. Hospital catering is a specialized form of catering as the patient is normally unable to move elsewhere and choose alternative facilities and therefore special attention must be given to the food and beverages so that encouragement is given to eat the meal provided.

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The Services

The Services include the armed forces: the navy, army and air force; the police and fire service, and some government departments.  The armed forces often have their own specialist catering branches.


Working on a very limited budget, the diet for the inmates is based upon fixed weekly quantities of specific named upon fixed weekly quantities of specific named food commodities with a small weekly cash allowance per head for fresh meat and a further separate weekly cash allowance per head for the local purchase of dietary extras of which a proportion must be spent on fresh fruit.

Employee Catering

This is the provision of catering services to employees.  The activity may be preformed either directly by the employer, or subcontracted out to contract caterers.

A direct or in-house catering service that is running smoothly and being well managed is unlikely to change to using a contractor.  Those operations, however, that are experiencing difficulty may be wise to consider employing the services of a catering contractor but in doing so must also be sure to define exactly what is required of the contractor in terms of level of service, costs per employee head, revenue, etc.

Different Departments and Their Functions

Organization of a Hotel

The primary function of a hotel is to accommodate those away from home, and sleeping accommodation is the most distinctive hotel product.  For a commercial type hotel with total number of rooms ranged from 300 to 500, it will usually consist of the following major departments:

        Rooms Division

        Food and Beverage

        Housekeeping

        Sales and Marketing

        Finance

        Human Resources

        Engineering

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Rooms Division

In most hotels room sales are the largest single source of hotel revenue and in many, more sales are generated by rooms than by all the other services combined.  Room sales are invariably also the most profitable source of hotel revenue, which yield the highest profit margins and contribute the main share of the hotel operating profit.  Thus, the primary function of the Rooms Division is the provision of sleeping accommodation and related services.  Three main hotel activities are earning the room revenue: front office, housekeeping and reservation.

Food and Beverage

The food and drink service is the second major activity of most hotels and in many of them it accounts for a larger proportion of employees than the provision of sleeping accommodation and related services.  The function of the Food and Beverage is to provide meals and refreshments to both hotel and local residents.


The basic housekeeping function of the hotel is the serving of guest rooms.  In this scope, guest bedrooms may be the sole or main responsibility of the hotel housekeeping department, but it may extend to other areas of the hotel like guest lifts and lobby, etc.

Sales and Marketing

Marketing and sales are critically important to the success of a hotel.  Without guests, there is no need for frontline employees or anyone else for that matter.  Marketing is all about finding out what guests’ wants and needs are and providing them at a reasonable cost and profit.  Sales are an important part of marketing.  The difference between marketing and sales is that with marketing, the focus is on the guest.  With sales the focus is on the product or service for sale.


The hotel industry is characterized by a high degree of risk, which primarily is the result of two factors: the cyclical nature of demand and the high degree of capital investment.  The basis function of the Finance Department of a hotel is to consider all the aspects that are of interest to the investors, but the department is concerned also with planning and day-to-day control of the business.

Human Resources

In most of the hotels, Human Resources Department is considered as a back-of-the-house department.  The Human Resources Department manages the hotels’ employee benefits program and monitors compliance with laws that relate to equal opportunity in hiring and promotion.


The hotel business is increasingly concerned with managing, developing and maintaining the property and its facilities.  Property operation, maintenance and energy costs are costs of hotel operation, and the function of the Engineering Department is to maintain the property and its facilities in an appropriate condition at all times.

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Organization of a Hotel’s Food and Beverage Department

The food and drink service is the second major activity of most hotels and in many of them it accounts for a larger proportion of employees than the provision of sleeping accommodation and related services.  In general, the Food and Beverage Department of a hotel is composite of the following departments:

        Restaurant

        Beverage

        Catering

        Room Service

        Food Production

        Stewarding


Because of the service diverse styles and sizes of catering operations, the term restaurant can imply establishments ranging from luxurious to modest and include fine dining, coffee shop, and fast food, etc. The function of these restaurants is to provide food and drink generally at high price with high levels of service.


Selling alcoholic beverages is more profitable than selling food.  The primary function of the Beverage Department is to provide snack, cocktail, wine, spirit and other beverage service to the customers.


Very few hotels can exist without booking groups, conventions, meetings, trade shows, and social business such as weddings, lunches, and dinners for many occasions.  The banquet and meeting space not sold in conjunction with room and group sales is sold by the Catering Department to the local market for social party business.

Room Service

The purpose of the Room Service Department is to provide a complete meal, a reception, or just a soft drink and have it wheeled into their rooms within a reasonable time at all hours of the day or night.

Food Production

Food Production Department of a hotel will be responsible for the preparation and production of quality food products to the customers of various food and beverage outlets of a hotel.

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[Text Wrapping Break]The Stewarding Department in a hotel or foodservice operation responsible for the back of the house cleanliness in the food and beverage areas; the cleanliness of the chinaware, cutlery, glassware; and the custody of related food and beverage equipment.

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Organization of a Western Food Production Department

The following outlines of the work of western kitchen staff organized on traditional kitchen brigade.

Executive Chef

The Executive Chef controls all the sections and the cooks in charge of them; supervises preparation, cooking and service of food from the kitchen to all the dining outlets; arranges the menus; plans the timing for completing food production for the beginning of restaurant service; checks food for flavour and seasoning by tasting; supervises the servery giving dishes a final inspection before service, with attention to correct garnish and appearance.

Sous Chef

Sous means “under” in French and the Sous Chef is the second chef in command of a kitchen.  In large hotels, the Sous Chef’s position is also mostly administrative and supervisory, helping the Executive Chef run the kitchen.

Chef de Partie

Chef de Partie is a chef supervisor in charge of a kitchen or a specific area.  In some cases, they call out the orders during service time, inspect the meals going cut, and supervise the general traffic flow in the kitchen.


Cook is the rank and file white jacket culinarians who work under the supervision of department chefs.  Some cooks specialize; one might be a fish butcher or another a broiler person.

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Rights and Duties of Employers and Employees

The exact nature of the relationship between employer and employee is normally regulated by the terms contained in the contract of employment, some of which will be subject to minimum standards imposed by the government.  However, the common law also has a part to play in setting minimum rights and duties, which must be met by both parties ? employer and employee.  Breach of these terms, while they may be unwritten ? and even unknown to one or both of the parties, can be just as important as breach of a written contractual term, for the common law operates to imply into every contract of employment certain terms on which the contract is silent.  These common law aspects of the contract are set out below.

The Duty to Pay

The express terms of the contract should deal with wages or salary both as to the amount of pay, or method of calculation, and the frequency of payment.

The Duty to Provide Work

If there is no express provision in the contract requiring the employer to provide work for employees, such a term might be implied in special circumstances: most notably when the amount of pay depends on the work done and when the employee needs to work in order to gain publicity and so enhance his reputation, e.g. a top class chef whose reputation could be severely damaged if it became known that his employers were refusing to let him work, or where he needs to practice his profession and so maintain professional competence.

Health and Safety

There are common law duties placed on employers in this area, composed essentially of three elements:

        they must select reasonably competent staff (or provide training to bring new recruits up to a reasonable standard of competence);

        they must provide adequate materials;

        they must provide a safe system of working;

Any breach of this duty means that employees may claim damages from the employer for any injury sustained as a result of the breach.  Even where no injury has been sustained but the employer’s breach created a potential hazard; the employee might be justified in resigning without notice and making a successful claim of unfair constructive dismissal.

The Duty of Reasonableness

There is a duty imposed on both parties to the employment contract to behave reasonably, and to do nothing that would undermine the mutual confidence between the parties, which is essential to the continuance of the contract.  This duty has now been overtaken to a large extent by the laws on unfair dismissal, but it is this duty, which lies at the heart of many constructive dismissal claims.

The Employee’s Duty to Serve

In addition to the employer’s duty to maintain the employment relationship is the employee’s duty to serve the employer.  This does not mean that he or she must be at the employer’s beck and call all the time, for any work at all.  It does mean that he must be ready and willing to work in accordance with the terms of his contract and failure to do so will normally entitle the employer to treat it as a breach of contract that justifies the employer in terminating the employment, subject, of course, to the unfair dismissal rules.

The Duty to be Obedient

Again, overtaken to a great extent by the unfair dismissal laws, the employee is under a duty to obey any reasonable instruction given by his employer.  The instruction must be lawful and must not be one that would put the employee in personal danger, unless this is an essential part of the contract (e.g. a war correspondent).  Employers may not, therefore, expect an employee to be bound by the duty to obey if he instructs him to work on unsafe equipment but if there is some inherent danger in an activity then the duty applies.

The Duty of Competence

Employees, other than those who are recruited as trainees, by agreeing to accept a job in effect promise that they are competent to carry out the work involved.  Thus, incompetence, negligence or lack of capability will be a breach of contract by the employee and will, in theory at least, entitle the employer to sue for any damage caused by the breach.  However, this duty has been amended somewhat by the unfair dismissal laws and it is unlikely that dismissal for the first negligent lapse or first sign of incompetence would be fair unless appropriate procedures had been followed.

The Duty of Good Faith

As it is essential in the employment relationship that there is mutual confidence between employer and employee, the law imposes on employees the obligation to serve the employer faithfully, i.e. to do nothing, which would damage the employer’s business.  The main elements of this duty are:

Secret profits ? employees must not accept secret payments from companies or individuals who do business, or are in some way connected, with their employer;

Confidential information ? confidential information about the employer’s business, trade secrets, customers’ names and addresses, etc., must not be divulged to third parties;

Competition ? employees may not set up business in competition with their employer without his knowledge and consent.  This duty lasts for as long as the contract of employment lasts, or even longer if the employee has signed a restrictive covenant restraining him form working in a certain industry or a particular area for a specified period of time after leaving the company.

Inventions ? any inventions made during the course of an employee’s work will normally belong to the employer.  The position is regulated by the patents act, which provides for compensation to be paid to the employee in respect of the invention when it proves to be of outstanding benefit to the employer.  Copyrights in work produced by the employee in the course of his employment will usually also belong to the employer.

Opportunities of Personal Development

A career consists of all the jobs held during one’s working life.  A study of one group of employees revealed five factors of concern.  Those factors were:

        Employees want equity in the promotion system with respect to opportunities for career advancement.

        Employees want their supervisors to play an active role in career development and provide timely feedback on performance.

        Employees want knowledge of opportunities for career advancement.

        Employees need different amounts of information and have different degrees of interest in career advancement, depending on a variety of factors.

        Employees, depending on their age and occupation, have different levels of career satisfaction.

Careers in the hotel and catering industry exhibit a number of conspicuous features:

        There are a lot of career opportunities in management.  The industry displays a rate of promotion to management far in excess of most industries.

        There are two streams of management – those based on experience only and those based on vocational education and experience.

        Careers tend to be developed through a mixture of company career structures and labour market mobility.

        Because there are two streams of management career with one offering the opportunity to rise from the lower ranks the salaries of all junior ranks tend to be pulled down by this connection to the working ranks.

        This restriction does not apply to levels higher than junior managers and management salaries show a wide dispersion.

        Career structures vary from company to company.

Perhaps the most obvious structural feature of the hotel and catering industry is its fragmented small unit structure.  Most companies mimic the structure of the industry in that they have numbers of units plus a head office with perhaps some intervening levels of management, how they actually operate in terms of how authority and responsibility are distributed and how roles are prescribed is likely to vary from company to company.

Influence of Structures

Given the structure of the industry, the obvious target occupation for careers would be unit management: hotel manager, restaurant manager, catering manager, etc.  This is clearly a large proportion of the management population of the industry, but the opportunities do not stop there as line management extends up to the corporate level.

Functional specialisms at head office and within larger units offer alternative careers.  However, functional specialization is, by its nature, a smaller population than line management.  To understand career paths to unit management it is helpful to recast the skill pyramid showing the direction of the flows.

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Relationship to the Economy and Unions

The Economic Impact of Hospitality Industry

Hospitality industry produces secondary impacts beyond their original expenditures.  When a tourist spends money to travel, to stay in a hotel, or to eat in a restaurant, that money is recycled by those businesses to purchase more goods, there by generating further use of money.  In addition, employees of businesses who serve tourists spend a higher proportion of their money locally on various goods and services.  This chain reaction continues until there is a leakage, meaning that money is used to purchase something from outside the area.

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Significance of the Food Service Industry in an Economy

The food service industry is becoming more important in many countries and cities, e.g. China and Hong Kong.  The increasing significance of the food service industry may attribute to the following reasons.

–            Food and water are the basic needs of all mankind, and the existence of the food service industry is to meet with these needs.

–            The food service outlets provide food and drink to their customers who are not able to consume their meals at home, e.g. businessmen, travellers, and factory workers, etc.

–            The food service industry is a labour-intense industry which could provide substantial job opportunities, e.g. Food and Beverage Manager, Restaurant Manager, Executive Chef, Captain and Waiter, etc., to both domestic and overseas labour markets.

–            The food culture of each country or place will also play an important role in attracting tourists to visit the country or place in order to try out the distinct culture, e.g. cuisine, eating habit and history, etc.

–            The food service industry is one of the important sectors of the tourism industry, which can help to generate foreign currency for the country or place.

Relationship to the Unions

As a supervisor, you may find yourself at one time or another working with employees who belong to a union.  This is particularly true if you work for a large hotel or restaurant in a metropolitan such as Hong Kong, where the unions have been successful in organizing hospitality employees.  Therefore, unions remain a powerful political and economic force, particularly in highly industrialized regions and in industries with a high percentage of unionised workers.

Union-management relations continue to take place within a well-defined system of laws and past practices that consists of three principal actors: workers and their representatives (unions), managerial employees (management), and government representatives in the legislative, judicial, and executive branches (government).  Each of these parties depends on the other.

A union is an organization that employees have designated to deal with their employer concerning conditions of employment such as wages, benefits, and hours of work.  The conditions of employment negotiated between management and the union are written into a labour contract.  Collective bargaining is the process by which the labour contract between the union and management is negotiated.  A labour contract is typically in place for two to three, or more, years.  In addition to collective bargaining, unions also administer the labour contract, represent bargaining unit members in grievance procedures, conduct strikes (employee work stoppage) or other work actions, look for new members, and collect dues from current members.

As a supervisor of unionised employees, there are many actions that you may take to work effectively with the union and at the same time create and maintain a positive work climate.

        Know every detail of the labour contract.

        Endeavour to have a good working relationship with the union steward.

        Take every grievance seriously.

        Never discriminate against an employee because he or she belongs to the union.

Employment Contracts

A written employment contract reminds both employers and employees of their obligations, and helps avoid possible disputes.  It should set out clearly the rights and benefits of both parties.

Employers and employees are free to negotiate and agree on the terms and conditions of employment (with reference to a company’s own system of compensation and benefits) provided that they do not violate the provisions of the Employment Ordinance (Cap 57).


All employees, irrespective of the length of service, should be granted statutory holidays.  An employee is entitled to paid statutory holidays after he/she has been employed under a continuous contract for a period of 3 months.

A continuous contract of employment means an employment contract under which an employee works continuously for the same employer for 4 weeks or more, with at least 18 hours in each week.

Maternity Leave Pay

A female employee is entitled to maternity leave for 10 weeks if she has been employed under a continuous contract for 4 weeks or more immediately before the commencement of maternity leave.

A female employee is eligible for maternity leave pay if she has worked under a continuous contract for not less than 40 weeks immediately before the commencement of maternity leave.

Paid Annual Leave

The number of days of paid annual leave that an employee is entitled to ranges from 7 to 14 depending on the employee’s length of service.

Employers may choose to grant annual leave to employees according to the rules of their companies provided that the annual leave should not be less than the requirement stipulated in section 41AA of the Employment Ordinance.  Employers should state the number of days of annual leave to be given to individual employees.

An employee is entitled to pro rata annual leave pay upon termination of the employment contract if he/she has been employed under a continuous contract for a period of not less then 3 months in the leave year, except in cases of summary dismissal due to the employee’s serious misconduct.

Rest Days

An employee employed under a continuous contract is entitled to 1 rest day in every period of 7 days.

Sickness Allowance

An employee is entitled to sickness allowance if he/she has been employed under a continuous contract for a period of 1 month or more immediately preceding a sickness day.

An employee earns paid sickness days at the rate of 2 paid sickness days for each completed month of employment under a continuous contract during the first 12 months of employment, and 4 paid sickness days thereafter.  Paid sickness days can be accumulated up to a maximum of 120 days.

An employee is eligible for sickness allowance if ?

        the employee has accumulated the number of paid sickness days taken;

        the sick leave taken is not less than 4 consecutive days; and

        the sick leave is supported by an appropriate medical certificate.

If a female employee is absent from work to attend medical examination in relation to her pregnancy, post confinement medical treatment, or due to miscarriage, any day on which she is absent shall be counted as sick leave.  She will be entitled to sickness allowance for each day of the sick leave provided that she has accumulated paid sickness days and can produce an appropriate medical certificate.

Termination of Employment Contract

For an employment contract, which does not have a probation period, the agreed period of notice for termination should not be less than 7 days.

If a probation period is provided, the agreed period of notice for termination after the first month of probation should not be less than 7 days.

End of Year Payment and Bonus

There is no legal requirement under the Employment Ordinance for end of year payment, which includes bonus and double pay.  However, an employer is contractually bound to make such payment if a clause on such payment is included in the contract.

If the end of year payment is of a gratuitous nature or is payable at the discretion of the employer, it must be clearly specified n the employment contract.

If the employment contract has provided for end of year payment, an employee is entitled to have pro rata end of year payment if he/she has been employed under a continuous contract for a period of not less than 3 months in the payment period.  The exception is in cases of summary dismissal due to the employee’s serious misconduct or resignation by the employee in the payment period.

Any probation period, subject to a maximum of 3 months, is excluded from the calculation of the qualifying service for pro rata end of year payment.



Suggestive selling is the creative and enthusiastic merchandising of food and beverage for more profitable sales. As competent service personnel, he/she should possess of effective selling skills.

To be a good sale & service personnel, he/she must have in-depth knowledge of the products, which include of the followings:

        Cooking and preparation method

        Ingredients

        Time required for production

        Food quantity (portion size)

        Food quality (taste, texture & presentation)

Also, he/she must understand the guest’s needs, of which includes of the following factors;

        Age of the guest

        Sex (male or female)

        Cultural & social background

        Individual likes & dislikes

        Seasonal (time of the year)

Good service personnel should have proper service skills and experience, always suggest items in a pleasant and polite manner. Remember, service personnel are also referred to be a salesman.

Human Relations & Teamwork


Working in catering industry involves working with people. As a professional waiter, he knows his position in the serving team.

Some basic rules to get along with your colleagues are as follows;

        Do not argue

        Be polite to guest and colleagues at all times

        Be positive

        Be co-operative

        Show more involvement on the team matters

        Be friendly and pleasant to co-workers

        Maintain an open mind and be adaptable to change

        Do not blame others when problems arise


Through good teamwork, we can create a better work atmosphere, which will accordingly create better staff morale and, provide greater guest’s satisfaction.

Greeting the Guests


         Every guest should be given a warm welcome and made to feel as comfortable as possible. The first impression we give to our guests should be courtesy and efficiency with genuine smile.

When the guest stands in front of the restaurant and intends to step in: –

        Address the guest by name.

        Stand in correct position, feet together and make eye contact with guest.

        Greeting guests with a genuine smile.

        Handling wraps and coats.

        When the guest approaches the table, hold and pull the chair for him/her.

        Offering of drinks/cocktails list and menu may be presented. Beginning with the lady if it is a couple or for a party, to the person to the right of the host, going counter clockwise around the table.

(Age, sex should be taken into consideration)

Note: this initial contact with the customer can be a vital contribution towards the satisfaction of his/her meal.

Handling Telephone


Taking a Reservation by Phone

Employee        : Good Morning. XXX Restaurant. John speaking. How may I help you?

Caller               : What time do you open this evening?

Employee         : At 7:00, Sir, and we close at Midnight.

Caller               : I would like to reserve a table for two, please.

Employee         : At what time, Sir?

Caller               : Around 8:15.

Employee         : May I have your name, please, Sir?

OR Could you give me your name, please?

Caller               : Smith.

Employee         : Would you prefer smoking or non-smoking area, Mr. Smith?

Caller               : Non-smoking, please.

Employee         : May I have you contact number, Mr. Smith?

Caller               : My mobile phone number is 93111111.

Employee        : A table for two in this evening at 8:15 for Mr. Smith.  Non-smoking

area.  The contact number is 93111111.

Caller               : That’s right

Employee         : Thank you very much, Mr. Smith.

Caller               : Thank you, Goodbye.

Employee         : Goodbye, Mr. Smith.  Have a good day.

Refusing A Reservation

Employee         : I’m so sorry, Sir/Madam, there isn’t any table left for the time being,

but we can give you a table at (time).

Employee         : I’m so sorry, Sir/Madam, the restaurant is fully booked tonight.

Would you like a table for another day?

Courtesy English For

 Food & Beverage Service


       Always use a guest name if possible

       If you don’t know the guest name, please say ‘Sir/Madam’.

       I beg your pardon?

       Enjoy your meal/drink, Sir/madam?

       This way, please.

       Please take your time.

       Would you like to have a drink first?

       How would you like your eggs/your steak?

       Just a moment, please.

       May I suggest

       My pleasure.

       May I come in?

       Good evening, do you have a reservation, Sir/Madam?

       How many are there in your party, Sir/Madam?

       May I take your orders now?

       Here’s the menu, Sir/Madam

       I am terribly sorry.

Various types of service


It refers to the manner of presenting a meal to the guest. There are three fundamental styles of service; French, Russianand American.

French service (Gueridon service)

French service involves the heating garnishing and serving of food from a gueridon placed next to the guest table. It is an elegant high classed style of service requiring skills and expertise. In this style of service everything is served from the right with the exceptions of bread and butter.

Russian service (Silver platter service)

In Russian service, the food is fully prepared and pre-cut in kitchen and is arranged on silver platter by chef. Waiters who serve the guest directly bring these platters into the guest room. A side stand is used to hold the platters and hot plates onto which the food will be served. The dinner plates are set before the guests from their right by going around the table counter clockwise.

American service (Plated service)

American service is the simplest type, used in most restaurants where a quick efficient service is called for. Food is prepared and plated entirely in kitchen and then placed before the guest. This type of services involves a minimum amount of specific procedures and does not require extensive expertise.

Basic Knowledge of Beverages


         A beverage is liquid used as a drink in a food service establishment. Beverages may come from animals or be extracted juice from fruits or vegetables.

Usage of Beverages

         A beverage may serve as: a starter for a meal.

: as accompaniments to a course.

: the final course of a meal.


Fresh Fruit juice                                                            Canned Fruit juice

Orange juice                                                                 Orange juice

Honeydew melon juice                                      Grapefruit juice

Watermelon juice                                                          Apple juice

Grapefruit juice                                                 Pineapple juice

Cantaloupe Melon juice                                                Grape juice

Papaya juice

Fresh Vegetable juice                                                   Canned Vegetable juice

Carrot juice                                                                  Tomato juice



Constituent of milk includes protein, fats, carbohydrate, minerals & vitamins A & D.

Various types of milk

        Whole milk

        Condensed milk

        Skimmed milk

        Evaporated milk

        Dry milk


It is a rich, dark brown drink made from milled cocoa bean.

Components includes of stimulant (Theo bromine), starch, fat (cocoa butter) &

Flavouring substance.


It consist of malt extract, full cream milk, cocoa, egg, glucose, vitamins & minerals


It consists of malt barley, skimmed milk, wheat flour, sugar, vegetable fat, vitamins & minerals.


It is prepared by mixing cocoa powder, dry milk, sugar, vanilla and other flavouring

Soft drinks

Aerated water: this beverage is charged with carbonic gas.

        Soda water             :colourless and tasteless

        Tonic water            : colourless and quinine flavour

        Dry ginger ale         : golden straw colour with ginger flavour

        Bitter lemon            : pale cloudy colour with lemon flavour

        Ginger beer             : Straw pale golden colour with ginger flavour.

        7 up/Sprite              : Colourless with lemon flavour

        Lemonade               : Colourless with lemon flavour

        Coca                       : Dark brown colour with caffeine

Mineral water

This is a clear & colourless beverage obtained from natural spring.

Type                                       Name                                Country

Naturally Sparkling                 Perrier                               France

Naturally Sparkling                 Vichy                                 France

Carbonated                             San Pellegrino                     Italy

Still                                         Evian                                 France

Basic Knowledge of Cocktails & Drinks


Cocktails can be served in three different ways :

         With ice cubes (on the rock)

         Straight up

         Mixed in water or aerated liquid

An aperitif is a pre-dinner drink which will help to stimulate the appetite, whilst a liqueur is an after dinner drink.

Few hints :

        Ice is nearly always an absolute essential for any cocktail.

        Never use the same ice twice.

        Pour the cheapest ingredients into mixing glass or cocktail shaker first, if you make a mistake, you will only waste the cheapest ingredients, and not the expensive spirits.

        Use the shaker as you can shake the ingredients.

        Chill the glass first before serving.

There are two rules for cocktails mixing :

        Cocktails, which contain fruit juice, sugar syrup, egg or cream ,are to be prepared in a shaker. (e.g. Golden Fizz, Daiquiri, Grasshopper etc. )

        Cocktails which only contain liquids can be stirred well in a  mixing glass.

( e.g. Manhattan, Martini, Rob Roy etc. )

The Bartender and Important Aspects

Role of the Bartender

         Working behind bar to dispense beverage is an important task. The bartender must be skilled in the art of mixing cocktails and also be providing professional service to the guest.

The Bar Mise-en-place

As a professional bartender, he must properly organise the bar station before opening for business. This includes of setting up and preparing all the necessary equipment liquor, mixers stock, garnishes, glassware and other necessary supplies.

The Checklist

The following checklist is a guideline which provides the basic requirement that must met before serving our customers.

Supplies Checklist

        Liquor/mixers/ice-cubes/garnishes/condiments

        Bottle opener/fruit knife/cutting board/cork screw/towel

        Coaster/toothpick/cocktail napkin/swizzle stick/drinking straw

Cleaning Checklist

        Bar top/ice bin/ drain boards/sinks/pourers

        Refrigerator/beer coolers

Job Description of a Bartender

Job title        : Bartender/Barmaid

Report to     : Bar Supervisor

Duties & Responsibilities :

  Check the supplies of wines and spirits are well in stock before opening for business.

  Keep all operating equipment clean and ready to use at all times.

  Keep up to date beverage lists available.

  Follow up to date beverage lists available.

  Keep and maintain company drinks & cocktail recipes standard.

   Maintain recipe? file to operate accurately and effectively.

   Check Closing stock everyday and prepare requisition as necessary.

   Carefully lock up when bar close.

Guest Relations

To be a professional bartender, the following hints & reminders are really helpful in making good guest relations.

  Try to remember the name of the guest.

  Be smile and pleasant to the customers.

 Never get into argument.

  Treat all customers with equal courtesy.

  Be aware of personal hygiene and grooming.

  Avoid over familiarity.

  Stay alert always

  Serve drinks with your finger well away from the rim of glasses.

Always serve lady first when you serve a couple.

Standard Cocktail Recipes                                                                                                                                                               

Cocktail Ingredients Preparation Garnishes Glass
Martini 1.5  Jigger Dry Gin

2.0  ml Dry Vermouth

Pour into Cocktail server, stir with ice & strain into glass Green olive Cocktail
Bloody Mary 1    Jigger Vodka

3    Jigger Tomato juice

2    ml Tabasco sauce

6    ml Worcestershire sauce

Rimmed glass with salt, pour the ingredients into glass, filled with 3 ice-cubes and stir. Celery stick

slice of lime

Brandy Alexander 1    Jigger Brandy

0.5 Jigger Creme de Cacao brown

0.5 Jigger Milk

Shake with crushed ice, strain into glass Nutmeg on top Cocktail
Manhattan 1.5  Jigger Bourbon

0.5  Jigger Red Vermouth

2    ml Angostura bitters

Stir with ice, strain into glass Red cherry Cocktail
Whiskey Sour 1    Jigger Bourbon whiskey

1    Jigger Lemon juice

0.5 Jigger syrup

Shake ingredients with crushed ice, strain into glass Red cherry & orange section Sour glass
Daiquiri 1    Jigger Light Rum

2/3 Jigger Lemon juice

1/3 Jigger syrup

Shake with crushed ice, strain into glass Red cherry Champagne saucer/Cocktail
Grasshopper 0.75 Jigger Peppermint (green)

0.5  Jigger Creme de Cacao(white)

0.75 Jigger milk

Shake with crushed ice, strain into glass A spring of mint Cocktail
Screwdriver 1    Jigger Vodka

3    Jigger Orange juice

Pour ingredients over ice and stir Red cherry & orange section Rock
Tom Collins 1    Jigger Gin

1    Jigger  Lemon juice

0.5 Jigger syrup

Pour the ingredients over ice, fill up with Soda and stir Red cherry, slice of lime & straw Collins
Pussy Foot 2    Jigger Orange juice

1    Jigger Pineapple juice

0.25  Jigger Lemon juice

0.25  Jig. Grenadine & 1 Egg yolk

Shake the ingredients with crushed ice, strain into glass & fill up with 7 up Red cherry, orange wedge & straw Highball

Beverage Service

Beverage Item



Iced Tea (Lemon)

Iced Coffee

Fresh Milk


Milk Shake

Iced Cream Soda

Fruit Squash

Fruit Juice

Tomato Juice

Mineral Water

Aerated Water

Sanka (decaffeinated) Coffee


        Coffee cup & saucer, spoon, coffee pot, sugar bowl, creamer

        Tea cup & saucer, spoon, tea pot, creamer, sugar bowl, hot water pot

        Underliner with paper doily, Collins glass, soda spoon, straw, sugar syrup

        Underliner with paper doily, Collins glass, straw, sugar syrup, creamer

        Highball glass

        Tea cup & saucer, tea spoon, sugar bowl

        Underliner with paper doily, Collins glass & straw

        Underliner with paper doily, Collins glass & soda spoon, straw

        Underliner with paper doily, Collins glass & straw

        Juice glass

        Underliner with paper doily, Juice glass, tabasco, worcestershire sauce, teaspoon, lemon, (salt & pepper)

        Highball glass (w/. slice of lemon or lime for sparkling mineral water)

        Highball glass (w/. slice of lemon & ice cube)

       Tea cup & saucer, spoon, creamer, sugar bowl, hot water pot, underliner with 2 packs of sanka

Basic Menu Knowledge


Menu Planning

1) The nature of the meal

        Breakfast

(Brunch) opening hours from 10:00am to 2:00pm

        Lunch (A La Carte, Buffet)

        Dinner (A La Carte, Buffet) Chinese Dinner

2) Atmosphere of the restaurant

        Coffee Shop

        Dining Room or Deluxe Restaurant (Specialty Restaurant)

        Gourmet Restaurant (French Style), Grill Room

3) For Banquet Service

        Lunch meeting (Simple)

        Dinner Dance (5 – 6 Courses)

        Festival Buffet

        Chinese Meal

        Fashion show lunch and dinner

Menu Structure

With the concept of Menu Planning, we have to follow the plan to compile with the menu structure. A basic rule in the menu structure is light before heavy, and back to light.

A classical menu / (Set menu)

Hors D’oeuvre



Hot Entree

Main Course

Cold Entree


Roast Meat with Salad / Vegetable / Potatoes



Nowadays, caterers would not put the classical menu in the restaurant, but to select few courses into the menu.

For example:




Main Course


Coffee or Tea

French Language:


Hors D’oeuvre





Foodservice Sanitation


The customer expects healthy and wholesome food, and the law requires it. The goal of foodservice sanitation is to protect public health.

The primary tenet of foodservice sanitation is absolute cleanliness. It begins with personal hygiene; the safe handling of food during preparation; clean utensils, equipment and appliances; clean storage facilities, kitchens and dining rooms; and ends with sanitary service to the customer.

For kitchen staff this must be the guiding principle; poor sanitation has serious consequences, not only for public health but also for the financial health of the business.


Personal Hygiene

The most imported hygiene measure in the kitchen is frequent and thorough hand washing. Germs pass from hand to hand. Hand must be washed with warm water and liquid soap in hand-washing sinks, which should be equipped with floor pedals. Washing hands in food preparation sinks should be prohibited.

Hands should be washed;

        Immediately before starting food preparation

        After taking a break

        After blowing the nose-nose picking is disgusting and unsanitary

        After visiting the toilet

        After preparing fresh fruit, potatoes and raw vegetables

        After handling raw meats, fish and eggs

        After touching contaminated articles (solid dishes, packaging, garbage, money, door handles or cigarettes)

        Hands should be dried with single-use towels …-not apron or side-towels

        Minimize contact with hazardous foods

        Wear plastic gloves when handling cold salads, luncheon meats and desserts

        Work never with rashes, open sores or infected wounds, even small cuts must be bandaged and waterproofed protected

        Tasting of food with fingers should be prohibited-use spoon

        Trimmed fingernails

        Hair short and washed daily-breeding ground for bacteria

        Daily clean uniform- or even change twice

        Clean appropriate shoes should be worn

        Absorbent socks should be worn-changed daily

        Should shower daily- for and after service

        Jewellery (watches or rings) are germ collectors-should not be worn

Hygiene of equipment, installations and workplace

                These guidelines should be at any time enforced:

        Keep utensils (dishes, pots, pans and kitchen tools) and cutting boards clean and in good condition.

        Clean equipment (electric slicers, mixers etc.) frequently. Sanitize at least once daily with a chlorine or iodine solution.

        Thoroughly clean large equipment such as stoves, grills, and rotisseries after each service period.

        Clean the kitchen at least once a day. The surfaces of floors, ceilings and walls must be hard and smooth to facilitate easy cleaning. Wash floors after each service period.

        Keep coolers and refrigerators clean and thoroughly clean them once a week. All refrigerators must have thermometers for monitoring temperature.

        Keep the storage area clean and well ventilated.

        Provide proper water and air controls for lobster and fresh fish tanks and inspect them daily for dead specimens. Clean frequently.

        Change kitchen towels, dishrags and all other cloth daily. Dirty laundry (such as aprons) should not be stored in the kitchen.

        Keep work tables, butcher blocks and work counters clean at all times

        Store garbage in lined, easy-to-clean containers with lids. Whenever possible, containers should be placed in a refrigerated room. In any case garbage should be removed from the kitchen daily. Garbage container should be washed and sanitized frequently or they will become breeding grounds for germs

        Check deliveries, which can bring pests (roaches, bugs, moths) into the kitchen. Dirty containers are breeding grounds for dangerous bacteria and should be kept out of the kitchen and storage areas.

        Control roaches and mice or rats with approved materials. Food must not contact poison. A licensed pest-control company should be regularly employed.

Hygiene on Storage, Sanitation of Products & Ingredients

        Correct food storage procedures need to be followed

        Absolute cleanliness during food preparation

        Potentially hazardous foods should be kept continuously refrigerated;

-         At below 4° C/ milk, heavy cream, cream products, butter,

meat, salads etc.;

-         At – 0° C: should keep all raw fish and seafood

-         at –18° C: should keep all frozen food items

-         Daily inspected for freshness and edibility, specially highly perishable food

-         Strict time/ temperature control-cold dishes should not be kept more then thirty minutes at room temperature until serving, held at 4° C until service. Hot dishes held for any length of time before service should be kept at not less then 74° C.

-         Food that must be chilled rapidly after cooking

-         Stocks, soups and thin sauces and creams should be placed in cold-running water or ice bath and stirring repeatedly to cool them quickly.

-         Dee-frying oils should be filtered and checked daily for usability. Used oil should not be discarded down the drain; it should be collected and recycled via a rendering company.

-         All raw or cooked food should be stored separately

-         Food should be reheated to a safe internal temperature as rapidly as possible

-         Canned food should be stored in a cool 16° C, dry room (to prevent rust). Once opened can, food should be removed from it or the metal interior will corrode, stain the food, impart an unpleasant taste.

-         Usable leftovers must be sanitary and should be used within twenty-four hours.

Risk of Cross Contamination

Cross-contamination is the transfer of bacteria from a contaminated source to an uncontaminated food (usually freshly cooked food). If this food is suitable for bacterial growth and is left for some time in a warm room, the few bacteria, which have been transferred to it, will multiply to large numbers and when the food is eventually eaten it will cause food poisoning.

Food-borne illnesses, food poisoning and food spoilage result from rapid reproduction and toxin production of microorganisms in food.

Causes include:

        Unclean hands and fingernails, infected wounds, dirt attached to wristwatches, rings and other jewellery.

        Coughing, sneezing, nose picking, seasoning and tasting foods with fingers

        Dirty utensils, dishes, appliances, and equipments, cleaning rags, sponges and brushes.

        Contaminated work surfaces (such as cutting boards)

Touching pets

        Roaches, flies, mice, rats and insects (germs are present in their saliva, urine and faces and on their bodies).

        Leaving raw products or prepared dishes for long time at room temperature

        Defrosting frozen foods incorrectly.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)

The HACCP system is to identify all the potential hazards that might occur during a critical analysis of the entire process of food production.  All these potential hazards warrant highest level of attention and control and hence the name Critical Control Points.  Based on the analysed hazards, proper standards, monitoring procedure and corrective actions should be established for each of these Critical Control Points in order to minimize the chances of hazards occurring.

The HACCP has been adopted by many food-manufacturing companies around the world. The catering industry can adapt the HACCP principles for their own food  safety plan.  The food safety plan has the following advantages:

+ proactively avoiding occurrence of hazards and problems

+ reducing chances of food poisoning

+ reducing reliance on testing of finished products

+ hence improving the confidence of consumers in the food products

The seven HACCP principles

1. Hazard Analysis

The entire food production process is analysed thoroughly to ascertain the potential hazard areas where food might be contaminated.  Such kind of hazards can be microbiological, chemical and physical contamination.

2. Determinethe Critical Control Points (CCPs)

A CCP can be any particular step or process in the entirely of the food production process.  With the institution of proper control, the processing of food can be hazard free and safe or at least the hazard can be reduced to a level that is acceptable.  Common control points include purchase of raw materials, the processes of refrigeration, cooking, hot food holding and cooling, etc.

3.  Establishing Critical Limits

The critical limits are standards whereby levels of acceptance can be measured.  These standards are set for each of the CCPs and are normally the maximum or minimum values or measures for each of the CCPs.  Common measurements include temperature, time, appearance, texture, colour, etc.

4.  Monitoring

It includes physical inspection, chemical and biological testing and assessment in order to ascertain whether the CCPs are under control and the entire review process is documented for verification.

5.  Effective Corrective Actions

When deviations from the standards occur, management should establish corrective action procedures to rectify the inadequacies in the first instance.

6.  Documentation

Full and correct documentation helps in the control process and provides useful reference for future purpose.  Forms can be designed to record the complete details of corrective action taken when deviations from standards occur.  Staffs can be assigned to perform this task so that they understand more about their role as well as the importance of the process.

7.  Verification

By employing various means of tests and assessment, each of the steps and processes is critically reviewed to ensure that the entire food production process is operating in accordance with the principles of HACCP.  Regular and periodic calibrate of measuring equipment, physical inspection of the monitoring process and review of corrective action procedures are just some fine examples of an effective HACCP system working.  Furthermore, testing of finished products on a sampling basis, review of control documentation and on site inspection also provide tell-tale evidence whether the HACCP is performing effectively.

Implementation of HACCP

+ Appointment of a person responsible for the overall monitoring of food safety with adequate management empowerment and resources

+ Process flow diagram

+ Implementation-based on the 7 principles and including other requirements (cleaning and disinfections, personal hygiene, disposal of wastes, staff training and handling of customer complaints)

Examples of the Monitoring Process

Purchase of raw materials

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, physical or chemical contamination Buy only from approved suppliers with good reputation Buy only from approved suppliers Approved supplier list
Specify food quality and safety standards including food temperature in transit (chilled foods should always be kept at or below C, frozen foods should always be kept below -1C) Purchase records

        Receipt of delivery

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, physical contamination and damaged packing Consume Before Date: Make sure the delivery date is well before Consume Before Date Notify suppliers of refusal of delivered products

Improve receipt process to store chill and frozen foods immediately

Delivery records
Temperature: Chilled foods should be kept at or below C.  Frozen foods should be in completely frozen state
Store chill and frozen foods immediately
No signs or traces of rotten foods
Packing is intact with no sight of foreign or strange matters
Clean delivery vehicles

        Storage of dried foodstuffs

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination All foodstuffs must bear date Put back date Records of pest control

Cleaning records

Adopt First in First out in storing and retrieving foodstuffs (FIFO) Dispose of foodstuffs that have passed Consume Before Date
Cover all the foodstuffs and store different types of food separately Cover all the foodstuffs and reorganize the storage area
Packing is intact with no sight of foreign and strange matters
Adequate measures for prevention of pests in storage areas Pest control
Keep the storage areas clean and dry Clean storage areas

Cold Storage

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination All foodstuffs should bear date Put on date Records of temperature of chillers
Adopt First in First out in storing and retrieving foodstuffs (FIFO) Dispose of foodstuffs that have passed Consume Before Date
Avoid storing too much and hence overstuff the storage area Cover all the foodstuffs and reorganize the storage area
Keep temperature at C or below Adjust the temperature or repair the chiller
Cover all the foodstuffs and store different types of food separately Cover all the foodstuffs and reorganize the storage area
Clean storage area Clean storage area

        Processing

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination Fruits and vegetables must be cleaned thoroughly Clean the fruits and vegetables again Corrective action records
Cold foodstuffs cannot be placed at C or above for more than 2 hours after defrost Dispose of the foodstuffs if kept at 4C or above for more than 2 hours
Frozen foodstuffs must be defrost before cooking Allow more time for defrost
Use appropriate measures to distinguish utensils and chopping boards for handling cooked and raw foodstuffs Use colour coding to distinguish  utensils and chopping boards for handling cooked and raw foodstuffs

        Cooking

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria contamination The core temperature of foodstuffs should be kept at 7C or above Cook until the required temperature is attained Records of temperature


Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination Height of container should be less than 5 cm per 2 inches Speed up the cooling process Records of temperature
Cooling up to C or below in 6 hours Dispose of the foodstuffs if they cannot be kept cold to C or below in 6 hours
Cover or well wrapped up foodstuffs Wrap the foodstuffs well immediately
Clean containers Clean and disinfect the containers before use

            Re-Heating

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria contamination The core temperature of foodstuffs should be kept at 7C or above Heat again until the required temperature is attained. Records of temperature

            Hot Holding

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination Kept at 6C or above Adjust or improve temperature maintenance system to attain the required and acceptable temperature.  Foodstuffs should be disposed of if the temperature drops below 6C for more than 2 hours.

Containers must be well covered

Records of temperature
Containers must be well covered

        Delivery

Hazards Critical Limits Corrective Actions Records
Bacteria, cross contamination Hot foodstuffs should be kept at or above 6C Adjust temperature or improve means of transportation, so that the required temperature can be attained.  Hot foodstuffs kept under 6C for more than 2 hours should be disposed, similarly for cold foodstuffs kept at over 4C for more than 2 hours Records of temperature of foodstuffs

Records of checking of delivery vehicles

Cold foodstuffs should be kept at or below C
Delivery staff must have training on personal hygiene Cleaning and maintenance of delivery vehicles
Clean delivery vehicles Training of delivery staff



Tree functions of Nutrients:

-                     To give energy

-                     To build and replace body cells

-                     To regulate body processes

Type of Nutrients:

-                     Protein

-                     Carbohydrate

-                     Fat

-                     Minerals

-                     Vitamins

-                     Dietary fibre

-                     Water


Primary Functions:        -Building and repairing of body tissue as they wear out

-Regulatory functions

-Extra protein is burned as energy

Source: Animal -Meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and poultry

Vegetables      -Bread, flour, cereal products, beans, peas, lentils, nuts

Quantity Required:        -for a person weighting 50 kg (110 pds) – 45 gr daily

-For a person weighting 70 kg (143 pds) – 65 gr daily

-One gram yields 4 calories


Primary Function:          -Provide energy and warmth

Source:             -Sugar and starch in vegetable foods- flour and cereal products,

Fruits and vegetables


-Pure sugar, syrups, jellies, jams, honey and candy

Quantity Required:        -Varies as per level of physical activities

-Minimum 100 grams daily

1gram yields 4 calories


Primary Functions:        -Potent carrier of energy and constitute valuable reserves for the body

-Provide highest calorie value

-Use for body maintenance and regulation


Animals (Saturated)           -Milk and milk products, meat, poultry, fish and egg yolk

Vegetables (unsaturated) -Seeds and vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, fruit or

Vegetables (Avocados and Olives)

Quantity Required:        -No fixed level

-Cholesterol considerations

-One gram yields 9 calories


Vitamins are nutrients, which are vitally important in the prevention of disease and in the regulation of body processes. The daily vitamin requirement is quantitatively low. However, vitamin deficiency may lead to serious illnesses.

Vitamins are present in most animal and vegetable foods. They can be lost during food processing and food preparation. There are roughly 30 known vitamins of which Vitamin A, D, B (B1, B2, B12, Niacin) and C are especially important to the human body.


Minerals or inorganic nutrients are present in the cells, tissues, fluids and hard skeletal structures such as blood, muscles and bones. Minerals are vitally important to human, and the presence of one cannot replace the other. About 13 different minerals are known to be needed by the body. The minerals whose supply is most likely to be critical are calcium, iron and iodine.

Dietary Fibre:

During digestion, most foods are not entirely utilized, and the indigestible carbohydrates are called dietary fibre or roughage. They are important in the digestive process. A lack of dietary fibre will result in constipation. Where there is too much roughage, the food passes through the intestine too quickly and cannot be properly used by the body.


The water content of the human body varies in age, weight, sex, and physical condition. About 65% of our body weight is water. Water is necessary as the medium in which all chemical and physical processes of the body operate. While its consumption varies in weather, physical work and food intake, human beings consume between 2 to 3 litres of water daily.

Applied Nutrition:

Food taken in excess or too scarcely can harmful to our health. Since the beginning of this Century, many nutritional experts have researched into suitable nutrients in normal and disease diets.

-           Normal Diet:                 Balanced Diet

-           Lenten Diet:                  All meat prohibited, Fish is accepted as replacement.

Milk is recommended

-           Vegetarian Diet:            All meat and animal related products (e.g. egg, milk,

and milk products) are excluded

-           Modified Diet:              Choice of food as a preventive, supportive or key

therapeutic measure to meet patient’s nutritional,

psychological and aesthetic needs


-                     Digestion is a complicated physical and chemical process. It starts in the mouth when food is broken up and chewed by our teeth and being mixed with saliva. Proper chewing is extremely important for good digestion.

-                     Food is then swallowed and transported to the stomach where further digestion occurs when the food mass is mixed with gastric juice by gastric contractions.

-                     The partially liquefied and dissolved food mass is mixed with bile, intestinal juice and pancreatic juice in the small intestine. The bile is prepared by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Intestinal juice is secreted by small intestine and pancreatic juice by the pancreas.

-                     The food mass is completely broken down in the small intestine and nutrients are absorbed by its villi. Nutrients are transported to the cells via the blood or lymph circulation.

-                     In the large intestine or colon, water is extracted from the food mass, which partially solidifies. The rectum stores feces or stool prior to the discharge from the bowels.

-                     The following substances are extracted from the body: water, salt, nitrogenous waste, carbon dioxide, cellulose and other undigested substances, as well as intestinal bacteria. These substances leave the body via exhalation, perspiration, urination and defecation.

Easily Digested Food:

-                     Refined bread, crackers and cereals

-                     Tender, lean or ground beef, veal, pork, lamb, poultry, fish and liver

-                     Eggs prepared any way except fried

-                     Cooked vegetables and ripe fruits

-                     Vegetable & fruit purees or juices

-                     Milk & milk products

Difficult to Digest Food:

-                     Coarse or whole grain bread, crackers and cereals products

-                     Tough, fatty meats

-                     Salted and smoked meats, fish and poultry

-                     Fried eggs

-                     Raw and fried vegetables

-                     Unripe fruits

-                     Rich dessert or food in high fat content

-                     Alcohol and carbonated beverages


The process of nutrient absorption and evacuation of waste products, and all the changes and conversions which nutrients undergo during their journey though the body cells are collectively referred to as intermediary metabolism. It is extremely important that a state of equilibrium be maintained.

Breading, thirst and hunger stimulate the human being to ingest substances to meet physiological requirements to assume building and maintenance functions.

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